car air conditioner refrigerants
What’s the name of the Freon that goes into car air conditioners?
The name of the refrigerants currently used in today’s automotive systems are:
HFO-1234YF, 2, 3, 3, 3-TETRAFLUOROPROPENE
HFC-134a, 1, 1, 1, 2-TETRAFLUOROETHANE
Low Global Warming Potential (GWP) Refrigerant systems.
The impact that refrigerant such as HFC 134a has on global warming is 1,300 times that of carbon dioxide. In other words, releasing 1 pound of R134a refrigerant is equal to emitting into our atmosphere 1,300 pounds of CO2
Some refrigerants used in the automotive industry:
CO2 can be used as a refrigerant.CO2 systems are more fuel-efficient and can increase cooling performance as compared to R-134a systems.CO2 systems operates at 7 to 10 times the pressure of systems containing R-134a.Due to the very high pressures associated with R-744 EPA has established conditions of use.
Conditional Use of R-744 (CO2)
Engineering strategies or devices shall be incorporated into the system such that foreseeable leaks into the passenger compartment do not result in concentrations greater than the CO2 short-term exposure limit (STEL) of 3% for 15 minutes. Manufacturers must adhere to all the safety requirements listed in the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE ) Standard J639 including unique fittings and a high pressure system warning label.
R-152 an HFC compound. It operates with similar characteristics to R-134a but possesses a much lower GWP (120 to 140) versus 1300 GWP for R-134a. R-152 systems utilize from 7% to 22% less energy to produce the same cooling. Due to flammability concerns EPA has established conditions for use for R-152a.
Conditional use of HFC-152a
Engineering strategies or devices shall be incorporated into the system such that foreseeable leaks into the passenger compartment do not result in HFC-152a concentrations of 3.7% or above in any part of the free space inside the passenger compartment for more than 15 seconds. Manufacturers must adhere to all the safety requirements listed in the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) standard J639, including unique fittings and a flammable refrigerant warning label.
The preferred global alternative refrigerant
Refrigerant HFO-1234yf,is a highly efficient, safe and effective replacement for HFC-134a.R1234yf was the subject of comprehensive testing conducted by an ASE International Cooperative Research Project from 2007 to 2009.That project, which was sponsored by 15 global automakers, major suppliers and 18 international, independent research institutes, concluded that 1234yf is safe for use in automobile applications.
The European Union Mobile Air Conditioning (MAC) directive requires that refrigerants in all new type vehicles sold in Europe after January 1,2013 have a global-warming potential (GWP) below 150 and that all cars sold after 2017 meet the lower GWP requirement.
The US EPA has issued regulations that call for r134a to be phased out of domestic new car production by 2021.R134a refrigerant will still be allowed for certain export vehicles, but only until 2025, after that, all new vehicles will have to use r1234yf refrigerant. R-134a production will continue for servicing older vehicles.
What are the differences between R-134a and 1234yf Freon.
HFO-1234yf has a GWP of 4 and reduces global warming impact by 99.7 % compared with HFC-134a.The biggest difference is r1234yf refrigerant flammability rating, which means it is mildly flammable and the cost that shops will be paying from suppliers. SAE concluded it was 20,000 times more likely for a person to die in a plane crash than exposed to a vehicle fire caused by a leak and ignition of HFO-1234yf.
Compared with r134a, considerable upgrades to component quality and robustness, as well, as compliance with a number of new SAE standards, have been engineered into r1234yf systems. The systems are designed to prevent potential refrigerant leakage into the cabin. The PAG oil is specific for 1234yf Freon and shops will need some new tools to work in compliance with new SAE standards, like new leak detectors and recovery recycling machines.