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WHAT CAUSES CAR AC COMPRESSOR FAILURE

COMPRESSOR CRANKCASE TEMPERATURE

The refrigerant in the automotive system is the substance which not only transfer heat from the passenger compartment in the vehicle to the condenser outside of the car and then released the heat into the atmosphere, but it also cools the compressor down reducing the total heat of compression preventing the compressor from building up excessive pressure and temperature. A poor lubricated compressor could be operating in temperatures that could get up to 800 F

 

ELECTRONIC CONTROLLED VARIABLE DISPLACEMENT CLUTCHLESS COMPRESSOR AND LACK OF LUBRICATION

Electronic controlled variable displacement compressors could be clutch or clutch-less designs. The ac  compressor has a swash plate that rotates to reciprocate pistons, which compress refrigerant. The swash plate is allowed to change its angle which changes the stroke rate of the piston. They are electronically controlled using sensors and an Electronic Control Module (ECM)

Electronic controlled variable displacement compressor is always running even when the a/c is off. The ECM changes the rate of displacement, but the compressor is spinning connected to the drive belt without any clutch to disengage.

Lubrication occurs by using a sump in which the connecting rod splashes oil around the inside of the compressor. Some automotive air conditioning compressors use an oil pump to circulate the oil, like an engine lubrication system. Lubrication is accomplished while the ac compressor is running and there is refrigerant and oil circulating back to the compressor.

The (ECVD) clutch-less compressor should not be operated  without refrigerant in the system  to carry lubricant.

EXPENSIVE MISDIAGNOSIS AND UNNECESSARY COMPRESSOR REPLACEMENT

 These (ECVD) clutch-less compressors do not have a conventional clutch, meaning the compressor shaft turns all the time driven by the accessory drive belt, even when the a/c is commanded  off from the hvac temperature control assembly panel!

ECV CONTROL DIAGRAM

2015 HYUNDAI ELANTRA GT 2.0L

Source: ALLDATA Repair.

.

Variable Swash Plate Compressor

The internally controlled variable swash plate compressor changes the swash plate angle by a MCV (Mechanical Control Valve) in accordance with fluctuation of a suction pressure.

The externally controlled variable swash plate compressor changes the swash plate angle by an ECV (Electric Control Valve) in accordance with an electrical signal from the heater & A/C control unit.

HOW TO QUICKLY DIAGNOSE CLUTCHLESS COMPRESSOR FAILURE

Without the right tools This new compressor output control technology can make it difficult to determine if the poor ac performance is being caused by a computer control malfunction or another problem in the refrigeration system or cooling system of the vehicle. This can result in an expensive misdiagnosis and unnecessary compressor replacement.

These are different tools that could be used for correct testing a diagnose of this units:

1.   A scan tool and checking PWM signal from the module to the ECV compressor .

2.  Handheld ECV Compressor tester unit to manually control the ECV on the compressor and increase or decrease (PWM)  the pumping capacity of the air conditioning.

3.  A scope can be used by carefully back probing the connector to the control valve and connecting the scope leads to the two wires and check the PWM wave signal

LOW REFRIGERANT AND LOW OIL CONDITION COULD LEAD TO AC COMPRESSOR DAMAGE

With a large refrigerant undercharge, oil is pumped out from the compressor and becomes trapped in the evaporator or other ac components of the system and is unable to properly return to the hvac compressor. The amount of oil in the compressor can get down to dangerously low levels creating excessive heat and, in most cases, leading to failure of the unit. Some Air conditioning tests has shown that with an undercharged ac system, the oil amount in the compressor was reduced by over 57%.

SYMPTOMS OF A BAD OR FAILING AC COMPRESSOR
  1. Poor ac performance  
  2. Growling noise
  3. Whistling noise
  4. Grinding noise
  5. Squealing noise
  6. Rattling noise
  7. Banging noise
  8. Knocking noise

NEED ASSISTANCE

Car A/C air conditioning compressor clutch bearing.

Automotive a/c compressor clutch bearing failures are usually caused by system problems and not the bearing itself. Replacing the noisy bearing without finding the root of the problem and fixing it permanently will only lead to premature damage of a new component and a waste of time and money. Seals, compressor shaft and bearing could share the same enemy, heat.

What could cause damage to the ac compressor bearing in my car ?

  1. Excessively high temperature and lack of lubrication
  2. Slipping compressor clutches
  3. Over tensioned manual belt tensioners
  4. A leaking compressor shaft seal

A leaking compressor shaft seal could cause the compressor oil to find its way into the hvac compressor clutch bearing contaminating the grease. The properties of the bearing grease will be changed by this oil contamination causing it a poor compressor bearing lubrication and inevitably internal bearing failure.

 

What could cause the ac system in my car to buildup excessive high pressure and temperature ?

  1. Leaking air conditioning systems will leak out refrigerant and the oil that resides inside of the compressor creating a huge frictional resistance between the compressor piston and the cylinder leading to an increase in compressor internal temperature.
  2. Overcharged or improperly vacuumed auto ac systems will create high system pressures and therefore elevated temperatures.
  3. Compressor pressure plate and rotor pulley excessive air gap will cause slippage and rise in temperature.

Replacing just the bearing


A/C compressor factory bearing defects will not  need more than a few hours of compressor operation to become evident. Rarely the bearing itself is the culprit.

NEED ASSISTANCE

Different types of oil

how much oil does my car ac system need ?

how much oil does my car ac system need ?

Proper lubrication is a must for ac compressor long life. When the a/c compressor is operated ,oil gradually leaves the compressor, and the oil is circulated through the entire ac system together  with the refrigerant. After the air conditioning system is operated for the first time an oil balanced condition is reached in which a certain amount of oil is retained in the compressor and a certain amount is re-circulated through the ac system components with different amounts of oil depositing in them . If a component of the system is replaced after the system has been operated, we need to compensate for this by adding oil to the new replacement ac part.

HOW AN OVERCHARGE/UNDERCHARGE A/C OIL CONDITION AFFECT THE A/C SYSTEM?

Too much oil in the a/c system could result in extremely high head pressures which will cause poor air conditioning performance and premature wear and failure of the hvac compressor. If there is a surplus of oil in the system, too much oil circulates with the refrigerant ,causing the cooling capacity of the system to be reduced and the compressor head pressure to increase. Too little oil results in poor lubrication of the compressor and an increase in the heat of compression which shorten the life of the ac compressor.

OIL BALANCING AN AC SYSTEM

When there has been excessive leakage of refrigerant, or it is necessary to  replace a component of the refrigeration system oil balancing is necessary to assure that the total oil charge in the system is the correct one after the leak has been repaired or the new ac part is installed in the car.

HOW TO OIL BALANCE MY CAR AC SYSTEM

The recommended procedure step by step

  1. Measure the oil recovered from the system while recovering the refrigerant prior to part replacement
  2. Drain and measure the oil left in the old part
  3. Drain the new part(if factory oil-prefilled)
  4. Refill the new part with the same amount of oil removed from the old part and the amount of oil recovered from the system

WHAT TYPE OF OIL ACCORDING TO TYPE OF REFRIGERANT R-12 R-1234YF AND R-134a

The refrigerant oil required by the automotive ac system depends on a number of factors ,but it is primarily dictated by the type of refrigerant used in the system.R-12 car systems used a mineral oil. Mineral oil mixes well with R-12  without breaking down and losing its lubrication characteristics. Mineral oil however cannot be used  to lubricate ac systems with R-134a refrigerant.R-134 systems require a different synthetic oil,polyalkylene glycol (PAG).There are different blends of PAG and POE oil; always use the recommended by the vehicle manufacturer or the replacement part manufacturer.

The lubricant oil used in automotive air-conditioning systems is a non-foaming, sulfur free grade specially formulated for use in cars a/c systems. New refrigerants like R-1234yf might use PAG 46 and are backwards compatible for use with R-134a systems, but the R-134a old PAG 46 oils are not forward compatible with R-1234yf systems.

OIL RECHARGE AMOUNTS

REFRIGERANT OIL Recommended PAG oil: DENSO ND-OIL 8  
Add the recommend refrigerant  oil in the amount listed if you replace any of the following parts:
A/C condenser(including receive Dryer. 25 mL (5/6 fl oz)
Evaporator 40 mL (1 1/3 fl oz)
Line or hose 10 mL (1/3 fl oz)
Receiver/dryer 10 mL (1/3 fl oz)
Leakage repair 25 mL (5/6 fl oz)
A/C compressor For A/C compressor replacement, subtract the volume of oil drained from the removed A/C compressor from 82 mL (2 3/4 fl oz), and drain the calculated volume of oil from the new A/C compressor: 82 mL (2 3/4 fl oz) - Volume of removed A/C compressor = Volume to drain from new A/C compressor.
NOTE: Even if no oil is drained from the removed A/C compressor, do not drain more than 50 mL (1 2/3 fl oz) from the new A/C compressor.

NEED ASSISTANCE

On-site automotive ac service

Why my car A/C is stuck in heat mode when the cooling mode is on?

 

A malfunctioning Temperature Blend Door Actuator Motor could be the cause. When the Winter Season begins, and you try to change the A/C settings on the Air Conditioning Climate Control from Cold air to hot air and you cannot control the air temperature.

 

What is a blend door actuator?

CALLOUT

COMPONENT NAME

2 Temperature Blend Door Actuator Motor

 

 

The blend door actuator is a small electric motor. As you adjust the temperature up and down, the signals go through the actuator to complete the request, positioning the air door on the right position.

When A/C became a popular option on vehicles in the mid to late 1970s, the systems were simple, except for some high levels vehicles, which were often the test bed of things to come.

The control systems were cable actuated, and eventually, vacuum controls were introduced. Most systems were equipped with a heater control water valve, also cable or vacuum controlled.

Automatic temperature control systems had a range of controls: vacuum, electromechanical, and pure electronic devices. They were complicated for the time and often not reliable.

MANUAL CONTROL SYSTEMS

The air delivery system controls the movement of heated and cooled air into and throughout the passenger compartment. The Hvac housing is the plenum unit located and beneath the instrument panel. It contains the evaporator and heater core, and the blower motor assembly and the blower speed control device.

The plenum houses the air doors and door actuators that direct airflow to the correct ductwork. The doors ay be controlled by cables, vacuum, or electrical actuators. Single zone systems are usually equipped with three doors:

 

The Blend Door Actuator – the blend door determines the temperature of the air flowing through the passenger compartment. If the A/C is operating, the air is dehumidified and cooled. The more air the blend door directs through the heater core, the warmer the air entering the passenger compartment.

DUAL ZONE A/C SYSTEMS

Dual zone systems operate in the same manner as single zone systems. However, most dual zone systems use two blend doors: one for the driver side and the other for the passenger side. This design allows for separate temperature settings on each side for the vehicle.

 

DIFFERENT TYPE OF ACTUATOR MOTORS

Actuator motors used in automotive Hvac systems can be one of four designs, depending on vehicle manufacturer, system design, year, and model of the vehicle:

  • Tri-state
  • Bi-directional
  • Three wire
  • Two wire

Tri-state Actuator

Temperature Blend Door Actuator Motor

CALLOUT COMPONENT NAME
2 Temperature Blend Door Actuator Motor

 

A tri-state actuator is a five-wire design. Three of the five wires are used for the feedback circuit. The other wires are for ignition voltage and Hvac control head requests.

0 volts will move the motor one way, 5 volts will drive the motor in the other direction, and when the signal wire reads 2.5 volts, the motor stops rotating.

Bi-directional Actuator Motor

Bi-directional actuators use three wires for circuit feedback. The other two wires are the positive and negative circuits that drive the motor. These circuits are controlled by the Hvac control head and move the motor direction based on the selections made at the control head.

Temperature Blend Door Actuator Motor

CALLOUT COMPONENT NAME
2 Temperature Blend Door Actuator Motor
Three Wire Actuator Motors

Three wire actuators have a power, ground, and an input wire from the Hvac control head. These actuators use a preprogrammed logic chip containing all the information to drive the motor in the requested direction. When a position change is requested by the vehicle operator, a circuit in the control head sends voltage to the actuator motor. As the motor moves, a potentiometer in the actuator compares the motor voltage to the output voltage from the control head. When both voltage readings are the same, the actuator motor stops. There is no feedback to the control head with this design.

Two Wire Actuator

Two wire blend door actuator motor

CALLOUT COMPONENT NAME
3 Temperature Blend Door Actuator Motor

 

Two Wire actuators create electrical pulses when the commutator rotates across the brushes of the motor. The Hvac control head, which has pre-programmed logic and actuator endpoint references, counts the electrical pulses as the motor moves the door through its sweep from one end to the other end. The actuator endpoints will change as the door seal wears, so if the endpoint counts become too large, a DTC will be set. If the Hvac system loses power, or if a component is replaced, the endpoints must usually be relearned through a calibration process.

SYMPTOMS OF BAD BLEND DOOR ACTUATOR

How do I know if my blend door actuator is bad?

Binding Actuators

If an actuator binds inside the Hvac plenum, the control module will attempt to overcome the restriction several times before it shuts down the circuit. You will hear the ticking noise. If the binding clears on the next activation, the control module will perform a calibration and set a history DTC.

 

What does a bad actuator sound like?

If an actuator binds inside the Hvac plenum, the control module will attempt to overcome the restriction several times before it shuts down the circuit. You will hear the ticking noise from the actuator motor.

Where is the heater blend door actuator located?

automotive dashboard

The Blend Actuator Motor is located on the Hvac Box underneath the dashboard. The exact location of the Actuator will depend on the Make, Model and Year of the vehicle serviced.

CALLOUT COMPONENT NAME
1 Left temperature actuator screws
2 Temperature blend actuator
3 Left temperature actuator lever
5 Hvac Box

Actuator motor

2015 Cadillac CTS Coupe RWD V8-6.2L SC

How do you test a blend door actuator?

Actuator diagnosis

When diagnosing Hvac actuators, always check the door for binding or restriction, caused by a distorted, worn, or damaged plenum. Check for restrictions that may be caused by a foreign object that is lodged in the door seep, or a broken crank arm on the door assembly.

Do not operate an actuator that is not attached to the door on the plenum. If the door is not attached, the motor can drive past its limits, which usually results in damage to the actuator.

What tools to use for door actuator diagnostics?

Actuator motor operation can be checked with a digital multimeter. Using service information and wiring diagrams for the vehicle, find the correct connector pins for feedback, power, and ground circuits on the actuator. Carefully back probe at the pins, taking care not to pierce the wiring insulation or cause damage to the connector pins. With the meter set on the DC volts scale, move the Hvac selector know and watch for a voltage change as the door position is commanded to change. There should be a voltage change as each position is selected.

  • Digital Multimeter
  • Service Information and Wiring diagrams
  • Scanner

These voltage readings will not give the exact position of the door. However, they will indicate that the door is moving through a complete sweep from one endpoint to the other.

How long does it take to fix a blend door actuator?

The labor time will be different depending on the make, model, and year of the vehicle and if it is a dual zone system or single. The labor will increase because of the time needed to remove all components before we can gain access to the actuator. In some model’s complete removal of the entire dashboard is needed to gain access to the Blend door actuator motor.

 

2015 Dodge or Ram Truck RAM 1500 Truck 2WD V6-3.0L DSL Turbo

Temperature blend door motor

Left side: 0.5 hours

Right side: 5.2 hours

 

2013 Ford Focus 2.0L

Temperature blend door motor replacement

Driver side: 0.5 hours

Passenger side: 0.5 hours

ac temperature out of the vents

What temperature should the A/C blow ?

How cold should my AC be at the vent in my car?

 

The ambient air temperature must be at least 16°C (60°F) .

Do not induce additional air flow across the front of the vehicle during the test.

What temperature should the A/C blow ? 

The A/C system is designed to provide the passenger compartment with low temperature and low humidity air. During periods of high heat and humidity, an A/C system will be more effective in the Recirculation mode (MAX-A/C).

How cold should my AC be at the vent in my car?

A performance test is the best way to determine whether the system is performing up to design standards. This test also provides valuable clues as to the possible cause of trouble with the A/C system.

How do I check the temperature of my car AC?

 

1-Park the vehicle inside or in the shade.

2-Open the windows in order to ventilate the interior of the vehicle.

3-If the A/C system was operating, allow the A/C system to equalize for about 2 minutes.

Turn OFF the ignition.

4-Install the J-43600 – Acr2000 Air Conditioning Service Center ACR 2000 Air Conditioning Service Center.

5-Record the ambient air temperature and humidity.

6-Record the low and high side STATIC pressure readings.

Are both the low side and high side pressures within the specified value?

More than 16°C (60°F) – 345 kPa (50 psi)

More than 24°C (75°F) – 483 kPa (70 psi)

More than 33°C (90°F) – 690 kPa (100 psi)

How do I check the temperature of my car AC?

 

Note: Record the relative humidity and the ambient air temperature at the time of the test.

  1. Close the vehicle doors and windows.
  2. Open the driver door window 12.7–15.2 cm (5–6 in).
  3. Select the following HVAC control settings:
    • The A/C is ON.
    • The coldest temperature setting
    • The maximum blower speed
    • Recirculation mode
    • The instrument panel (I/P) outlet mode
    • All I/P outlets are OPEN.
  4. Install thermometers in the left and right center panel air outlets .
  5. Apply the parking brake.
  6. Place the transaxle/transmission in one of the following positions:
    • PARK (Automatic)
    • NEUTRAL (Manual)
  7. Start the engine and warm to operating temperature.
  8. Operate the A/C system for 5 minutes.
  9. Inspect A/C components for the following conditions:
    • Abnormal frost areas
    • Unusual noises
  10. Record the following information:
    • The panel outlet air temperatures
    • The low-side pressure
    • The high-side pressure
  11. Compare the low and high side pressures and the panel output temperatures to the A/C Performance Table below.

Does all the data recorded fall within the specified ranges of the A/C Performance Table below?

 

A/C Performance Table 2016 Chevrolet Camaro 6.2 L
Ambient Temperature Relative Humidity Low Side Service Port Pressure High Side Service Port Pressure Maximum Left Center Discharge Air Temperature
13–18°C (55–64°F) 0–100% 186–289 kPa (27–42 psi) 930–1260 kPa (135–183 psi) 10°C (50°F)
19–24°C (66–75°F) Less than 40% 186–289 kPa (27–42 psi) 909–1212 kPa (132–176 psi) 9°C (48°F)
Greater than 40% 213–323 kPa (31–47 psi) 1019–1329 kPa (148–193 psi) 13°C (55°F)
25–29°C (77–84°F) Less than 35% 220–310 kPa (32–45 psi) 1061–1288 kPa (154–187 psi) 12°C (54°F)
35–50% 241–323 kPa (35–47 psi) 1123–1322 kPa (163–192 psi) 13°C (55°F)
Greater than 50% 254–351 kPa (37–51 psi) 1157–1391 kPa (168–202 psi) 15°C (59°F)
30–35°C (86–95°F) Less than 30% 248–337 kPa (36–49 psi) 1157–1391 kPa (168–202 psi) 14°C (57°F)
30–50% 261–358 kPa (38–52 psi) 1198–1419 kPa (174–206 psi) 15°C (59°F)
Greater than 50% 282–378 kPa (41–55 psi) 1240-1460 kPa (180–212 psi) 18°C (64°F)
36–41°C (97–106°F) Less than 20% 282–365 kPa (41–53 psi) 1288–1508 kPa (187–219 psi) 17°C (63°F)
20–40% 289–378 kPa (42–55 psi) 1302–1522 kPa (189–221 psi) 18°C (64°F)
Greater than 40% 303–392 kPa (44–57 psi) 1329–1529 kPa (193–222 psi) 19°C (66°F)
42–46°C (108–115°F) Less than 20% 316–392 kPa (46–57 psi) 1419–1612 kPa (206–234 psi) 18°C (64°F)
Greater than 20% 323–406 kPa (47–59 psi) 1433–1612 kPa (208–234 psi) 20°C (68°F)
47–49°C (117–120°F) Below 30% 351–427 kPa (51–62 psi) 1529–1701 kPa (222–247 psi) 22°C (72°F)

 

School bus ac repair

Bus Air Conditioning service & repair.

BUS AIR CONDITIONING

We provide on-site A/C services for school buses in Miami-Dade County.We help you get your school bus ready for the reopening of the schools.

In-cabin air filter maintenance /replacement

Carrier Units service & repair

Thermo King Units service & repair

New hoses installation

Leaks repair

Air conditioning compressor replacement

Condenser coil replacement

Evaporator coil replacement

Give us a call for a fast & reliable service by one of our ASE certified technicians.

How can i make my car ac colder

How can i make my car ac colder

Radiator cooling fan should be working at 100 %

-RADIATOR COOLING FAN

Two fan system

One fan system

 

-FAN CLUTCH SYSTEM

AIR ACTIVATED

TEMPERATURE ACTIVATED

 

***CHECK THE FAN OPERATION BEFORE MAKING ANY REPAIR TO THE AC SYSTEM***

The radiator fan(s) should be on any time the A/C is on.

 

IMPACT OF DEBRIS ON THE AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

Road debris affect the heat transfer of heat exchangers in your vehicle and the overall capacity of the air conditioning.

Clean all the road debris outside the car

(on the windshield)

(on the condenser coil)

Clean all the debris inside the car

In cabin air conditioning filter

Evaporator core

Screen air inlet

 

IMPACT OF AC COMPRESSOR OPERATION BECAUSE OF SLIPPING DRIVE BELT ON HVAC COMPRESSOR PULLEY 

-Check Drive Belt tension

An excessively loose drive belt will negatively impact the air conditioning compressor capacity.

 

HOW TO KNOW IF MY AC SYSTEM IS PROPERLY VACUUM AND RECHARGED.

Check refrigerant charge with gauges (You need special hvac equipment and EPA certifications)

Check refrigerant charge by sensing A/C lines temperature (Do it yourself)

CHECKING THE A/C SYSTEM BY SENSING THE A/C LINES TEMPERATURE.

-Open the hood to get access to the engine compartment (Be aware of all moving parts and hot components)

-Start the engine up.

-Set the A/C Climate control for Maximum blower speed position.

-Set the A/C Climate control for Maximum cold temperature position.

-Let the A/C system run for 5 -10 minutes.

-On the engine compartment identify the A/C lines.

-The Liquid line should be warm to cool even in a hot day

. (A liquid line cold or hot indicates a problem)

-The Suction Line should be cold

. Heavy frost or excessive moisture condensation on the Suction Line indicates a problem.

. Ambient temperature or too hot Suction Line indicates a problem.

-There should be a Temperature difference (TD) between the Liquid Line and the Suction Line (Check temperature before the Metering Device)

If the temperature of both lines is the same, it indicates a problem in the A/C system:

1-Compressor not pumping.

2-Compressor not turning on.

3-Low on refrigerant.

 

 

 

 

A/C compressor

A/C operation, normal noises.

Normal noises include the sounds of A/C compressor clutch engagement, the blower motor, moving blend air and mode doors, and pressure equalization after vehicle is shut down.

Noises that could indicate the need for a/c compressor service or replacement include:

  1. Growling noise with compressor disengaged
  2. Whistling noise
  3. Grinding noise
  4. Squealing noise
  5. Rattling noise
  6. Growling noise with compressor engaged
  7. Banging noise
  8. Knocking noise

Why is my AC making a weird noise?

Banging noise: If liquid refrigerant enters the compressor, a thumping, banging noise will result.

Knocking noise: Heavy knocking compressor noises come from refrigerant system blockage, incorrect pressures, or internal damage.

Growling noise with compressor disengaged: A worn compressor pulley bearing or clutch bearing will cause a growling noise.

Growling noise with the compressor engaged: A/C compressor internal bearings damage.

Squealing noise: A loose, dry, or worn A/C compressor belt will cause squealing noise. This noise will be worse during acceleration.

Worn or dry blower motor bearings may cause a squealing noise when the blower motor is running

Rattling noise: A loose or worn clutch hub or loose compressor mountings bolt will also cause rattling noise from the compressor.

Knocking noises: This type of noise from the compressor usually indicates internal damage, especially on piston-type compressors. Always check the compressor mounting and brackets before condemning the compressor for noise.

A loose mounting can cause knocking noises from the compressor area that may be mistaken for internal compressor noise.

Grinding noise: When car accessories pulley bearings are failing, they can make this kind of noise.

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